Published: 04 May, 2022 | Volume 6 - Issue 1 | Pages: 006-020
Crohn's disease is a chronic syndrome of the gastrointestinal tract that produces idiopathic inflammation. Approximately half of the patients develop abscesses and/or fistulas throughout their history that are located, mainly, in the perianal region. Current treatments are based on individualized plans that generally use combined pharmacology for symptomatic relief based on glucocorticoids, immunosuppressants or immunomodulators, antibiotics, anti-inflammatories, probiotics, and antibodies, or surgical therapies such as intestinal resections or ostomizations (colostomy and ileostomy) that tend to cause notable side effects in a considerable percentage of patients and a significant decrease in their quality of life.
Perianal fistulas consist of abnormal tracts, inflammatory tunnels, or chronic tracts of granular tissue that connect two surfaces lined with epithelium, have an external hole in the skin that borders the anus, and an internal hole located inside it around the anal canal, rectus and sphincters.
Treatment is a complex process that requires a multidisciplinary approach and the combination of several treatments. In the short term, the goal is to drain abscesses, reduce inflammatory and infectious processes, guard the fistulous tract with seton or lax lines, facilitate patency, and hinder new formations. In the long term, a total cure and the avoidance of complications that require surgery or the creation of intestinal stomas are pursued.
For this reason, new effective remedies with fewer adverse effects continue to be investigated, one of the most promising being the use of mesenchymal stem cells for the regeneration and cure of perianal fistulas and the remission of symptoms. The present bibliographic review delves into this new therapy and analyzes the current state of the situation regarding its efficacy and safety.